The Developmental Reading Assessment®, Second Edition, PLUS (DRA2+) is a formative reading assessment system that allows teachers to assess their reading level, then observe, record, and evaluate changes in student reading performance.
DRA2+ includes recommendations for scaffolded support to increase student reading proficiency. DRA2+ has undergone rigorous field-testing and is supported by sound validity and reliability analyses.
*A student's DRA2 level (independent reading level) reflects the student's oral reading fluency (95% accuracy) and comprehension (90%) at independent performance levels.
Incorporating the DRA2+ App, eliminates multiple tasks in the administration of individual student reading proficiency. Teachers simply logon their tablet, set up the assessment for each student, then assess their reading session while the student is reading the passage. Being online, the scoring and reporting is automated which means the results are received within minutes, that allows you to easily update the students individualized reading plan. In short, the DRA2+ App provides teachers with the latest technology – the smarter, better, and faster solution – for administering DRA2, communicating its results, and differentiating instruction. Thus, the DRA2 app saves time, eliminates paperwork (and the expense of photocopying) and ensures consistent and timely administration.
Paperless administration that yields instant accountability reports to gain more time for instruction
Automatic scoring and ongoing view of student progress to effectively differentiate instruction
Access to DRA2 Benchmark, Word Analysis and Progress Monitoring and EDL2 Benchmark, EDL2 Word Analysis and Spanish Progress Monitoring Assessments
Development of the DRA2 was based on what educators and the extant research literature identified as being key characteristics and behaviors of good readers;which were drawn from a variety of sources including the research literature concerning reading development and instruction.
Reliability analyses were conducted in the continual evolution of DRA2:
(1) Internal Consistency Reliability, (2) Passage Equivalency, (3) Test-Retest Reliability, and (4) Inter-Rater and Expert Rater Reliabilities.
In short, DRA2 is a valid measurement of accuracy, fluency, and comprehension as evidenced by: (1) Criterion-Related Validity, (2) Construct Validity, and (3) Content Validity.
DRA offers educators the tools they need to observe and document student reading abilities as well as inform instructional practice.
Determine each student's independent (or instructional) level with an evaluation of three components of reading: reading engagement, oral reading fluency, and comprehension
Quickly determine student's instructional needs, to create a plan documenting what each student needs to learn next with the Focus for Instruction. Once the assessment is complete, teachers can used this information to differentiate instruction and create instructional groups.
As appropriate, a Teacher can obtain more in-depth information for an individual student with DRA Word Analysis. This diagnostic assessment provides educators with a systematic means to observe how struggling and emerging readers attend to and work with various components of spoken and written words.
The DRA2 Benchmark Assessment measures each student's reading proficiency through systematic observation, recording, and evaluating of performance. Administer the Benchmark Assessment to identify an instructional plan that will meet the needs of each student.
By following the straightforward, four-step process, the DRA2 Benchmark Assessment pinpoints student strengths, abilities, and needs.
Step 1: Reading Engagement
Observe Student reading habits, preferences, and goals
Step 2: Oral Reading Fluency
Analyze and record oral reading
Step 3: Comprehension
Evaluate how well students understand the information they have read
Step 4: Teacher Analysis
Use Assessment results to personalize instruction to meet the needs of every learner
**Also available in Spanish Evaluación del desarrollo de la lectura®
The intuitive DRA2+ App guides teachers through theDevelopmental Reading Assessment steps with ease. Assess each student's reading performance to determine an independent reading level as well as the precise instruction needed to achieve reading success. The DRA2+ App for the iPad includes access to the Benchmark Assessment, Word Analysis, and Progress Monitoring Assessment for both DRA2 and EDL2.
The DRA2+ App for iPad gives teachers the ability to:
With the DRADashboard, teachers and administrators can access student, class, school and district reports on-demand. The DRADashboard helps teachers understand the strengths and weaknesses of their students so that they may provide focused instruction that is meaningful and personalized. (Access to the DRADashboard is included with the purchase of the DRA2+ Student License for the App.)
Teachers may download the DRA2+ app from the App Store. Access to the app is provided through purchase of student licenses.
For pricing, promotional offerings and additional information on the DRA2+ app, please contact your Pearson account executive.
All Purchase Orders must include the name and email address of the person responsible for district administrative functions related to DRA2+.
The DRA2 Word Analysis assesses skills related to Phonological Awareness, Metalanguage, Letter/Word Recognition, Phonics and Structural Analysis/ Syllabication. Administer Word Analysis to emerging and struggling readers to help students develop the skills needed for reading proficiency.
* Also available for EDL2, Análisis de palabras
The DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment includes brief passages DRA levels 4-60 so that teachers may regularly observe and record reading behaviors of students between Benchmark Assessments. Administer the DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment to ensure that reading deficits are being addressed.
* Also available for EDL2, Análisis de palabras
This innovative system provides a secure, convenient way for teachers to group students for instruction and to manage each student's DRA™ assessment information.
Just log in and let DRA2+ Online Management System provide you with a secure environment where you can store and manage your students' assessment results over time. With DRA2+ Online Management System, you can:
Get the most from your reading assessment implementation. Join us for a variety of training and professional development options.
We deliver face-to-face in-depth and extended training to help teachers develop effective strategies and enhance instructional practice. Dedicated, experienced consultants work with you on product implementation, classroom management, analysis of student work, and more. Our Instructional Services bring our programs to life and will enhance teacher and student learning!
In addition to on-site training, Pearson offers web-based product training in the form of self-paced modules and instructor-led webinars - available at your convenience, 24/7. Learn more about In-Service In-Sync at www.mypearsontraining.com.
Presenter: Kathy New
How do you determine each student’s independent reading level and identify what the student needs to learn next? How do you assess and document student’s development as readers over time? DRA2+ gives educators the tools they need to observe and document student reading abilities as well as inform instructional practice. Uncover what makes DRA2+ the most sought after, proven, and well respected reading assessment for teachers in grades K-8. This presentation will guide you through the straightforward four-step process of the benchmark assessment to pinpoint student strengths, abilities, and needs; the word analysis and progress monitoring assessments; as well as highlight the DRA2+ iPad app! This presentation will also highlight EDL2+, the Spanish Reading Assessment for dual language, bilingual, and immersion classrooms for grades K-6.
Date: Apr 24, 2018
Presenter: Olivia Ruiz-Figueroa
Olivia Ruiz-Figueroa, author of Developmental Reading Assessments Spanish component, Evaluación del desarrollo de la lectura®, shares how educators can gain knowledge about students’ literacy in Spanish through observing, analyzing, and setting a focus for instruction to identify where to begin literacy instruction for students in various types of instructional programs.
Date: Sep 14, 2017
Frequently asked questions follow. Click on a question to see the response.
What is the appropriate number of times to administer DRA2?
In general, the assessment is given twice a year (fall and spring) to provide teachers with information to guide instruction. There is always the option to administer the assessment more frequently. Oftentimes, the assessment is administered at midyear to identify the needs or skills of students who are challenged readers. It is also given mid-year, in some cases, to monitor student progress and to provide more instructional guidance.
Is it okay to prompt the child and ask the child to reread with better expression?
No. When a student is reading aloud during the assessment, it is not an instructional moment. The information gained from the student’s oral reading is intended to be a snapshot of the student’s skills at that point in time. The teacher should use the information gleaned from the assessment to guide instruction in the weeks to come.
Do we count a word error if a child misreads the word every time it is repeated in the text?
Every error, except for the repetition of a person’s name (Raymond for Ramon), is counted each time.
Should the retelling expectations be the same for a first grader and a third grader?
Yes, but on varied levels of text difficulty. In other words, a first grader reading DRA2 text Levels 4 to 16 would still require a score of 20 on the Comprehension section of the Continuum to demonstrate an Independent response, but he or she would be retelling text that is simpler/less complex. A third grader would be extracting the information from text that is longer and more complex. It is important to model and teach how to give a retelling, as well as have students practice giving retellings.
Do we count a word error if a student misreads the word every time it is repeated in the text?
In DRA2, you should use the procedures set forth by Dr. Clay for scoring and analyzing running records. Every error, except for the repetition of a person’s name (Raymond for Ramon), is counted each time.
Why does the DRA2 count all the errors in an oral passage instead of counting only the significant miscues, as in Jerry Johns’ Basic Reading Inventory (BRI)?
The DRA2 counts all the errors in order to be more consistent. One teacher may consider an error insignificant, while another teacher may consider that same error as important.
How does the DRA2 inform instruction for Independent students?
Students who score in the Independent range in Comprehension and oral reading Accuracy and Rate will still benefit from further instruction. Examine the pattern of circled statements on the student’s Continuum to identify areas to instruct/scaffold (Intervention or Instructional scores), extend (Independent or Advanced scores), or reinforce (Independent or Advanced scores). See the Moving Into Instruction section of the Handbook for specific instructional activities based on what students are “generally able to do” and what they “are learning to do.”
The two best questions to ask at the end of a DRA2 are:
• Have I learned anything new about this student from this assessment?
• Is there more teaching that needs to take place at this point?
If the answer to either question is yes, the information to guide instruction has been obtained.
What is the appropriate number of times to administer DRA2?
In general, DRA2 is given twice a year (fall and spring) to provide teachers with information to guide instruction. There is always the option to administer the assessment more frequently. Often times, the assessment is administered at midyear to identify the needs or skills of students who are challenged readers. It is also given midyear, in some cases, to monitor student progress and provide more instructional guidance.
Is it okay to prompt the student and ask the student to reread with better expression?
No.When a student is reading aloud during the assessment, it is not an instructional moment. The information gained from the student’s oral reading is intended to be a snapshot of the student’s skills at that point in time. The teacher should use the information gleaned from the assessment to guide instruction in the weeks to come.
How do DRA levels correlate with the Fountas and Pinnell Guided Reading levels?
DRA levels represent on-grade level texts and correspond with the range of Fountas and Pinnell Guided Reading levels in the on-grade level zone. In addition, observations of students’ oral reading, coupled with the information from the Continuum and Focus for Instruction, provide teachers with direction for instruction and/or guided reading.
Are there any specific instructions for a student who stutters?
The classroom teacher should collaborate with the student’s speech-language pathologist (SLP) and review the student’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for more direction. The IEP should suggest appropriate accommodations for the student. In the case of an oral reading fluency measure, if neither the SLP nor the IEP provides guidance, the timed oral reading fluency measure should be disregarded and so noted.
How should a record of oral reading or a measure of oral reading fluency be scored for a student with a speech sound disorder (SSD)?
Teachers providing instructional support for a student with an SSD should be familiar with the specific sounds or classes of sounds in error for the student. When reading orally, a student should have known speech sound errors, such as a sound substitution, omission, or distortion, counted as correct and not a miscue. The teacher should score based on the student’s intended word, excusing the SSD errors.
Research-based and widely field tested, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura, Segunda Edicion K - 6 (EDL2), helps students become independent successful readers by giving educators the right mix of tools needed to assess accuracy, fluency, and comprehension.
Development of the DRA2 was based on what educators and the extant research literature identified as being key characteristics and behaviors of good readers. The DRA2 is founded on a number of premises drawn from various sources, including the research literature concerning reading development and instruction.
The following reliability analyses were performed during DRA2 development:
The DRA2 is a valid measurement of accuracy, fluency, and comprehension, as evidenced by the following validity measures:
|Words Their Way: Word Study in Action||Developmental Reading Assessment® (DRA) 2nd Edition ©2006 Word Analysis||K-5|
|Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2), DRA2 Word Analysis, and DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment (PMA)||Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts||Kindergarten|
|Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2), DRA2 Word Analysis, and DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment (PMA)||Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts||1|
|Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2), DRA2 Word Analysis, and DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment (PMA)||Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts||2|
|Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts||3|
|Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts||4|
|Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts||5|
|Developmental Reading Assessment®, 2nd Edition PLUS (DRA2+)||Louisiana English Language Arts-Content Standards Benchmarks for K-4 for Transitional Readers||K-4|
|Developmental Reading Assessment®, 2nd Edition PLUS (DRA2+)||Louisiana English Language Arts-Content Standards Benchmarks for K-4 for Extending Readers||K-4|
|Developmental Reading Assessment®, 2nd Edition PLUS (DRA2+)||Louisiana English Language Arts-Content Standards Benchmarks for K-4 for Emergent Readers||K-4|
|Developmental Reading Assessment®, 2nd Edition PLUS (DRA2+)||Louisiana English Language Arts-Content Standards Benchmarks for K-4 for Early Readers||K-4|
|New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Language Arts Literacyfor Language Arts Literacy||New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Language Arts Literacy||5-6|
|DRA2 Word Analysis||Virginia Learning Standards||Kindergarten|
|DRA2 Word Analysis||Virginia Learning Standards||1|
|DRA2 Word Analysis||Virginia Learning Standards||2|
|DRA2 Word Analysis||Virginia Learning Standards||3|
DRA offers a variety of reports that can be shared with administrators, parents, and students. Overall the reporting features allow for quick analysis of data, that communicate results, and document change over time with a book graph form that enables educators to monitor student reading progress over time, confirm ongoing observations, and track them compared to benchmarks.
Group students for instruction using a class profile form that shows how the class is doing as a whole by reading level and Focus for Instruction areas.
Student Book Graph monitors students' reading level progress across their school years. A shaded area represents below-grade-level performance, so students' proficiency over time can also be tracked.
Class Reporting Form records students' DRA2 text levels and scores for Reading Engagement, Oral Reading Fluency, and Comprehension.
Focus for Instruction: Class Profile enables teachers to easily group students for instruction based on specific needs.
Student Assessment Folder provides storage and longitudinal monitoring of an individual student's progress. Store DRA2 forms inside this folder. Printed on the folder is a record of the student's DRA2 assessments, Student Book Graph, and fiction and nonfiction results.