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Bulletins

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Bulletin #25: College Readiness Indicators

This paper outlines current student-level indicators at the high school and middle school levels that predict college success. In this bulletin, indicators are divided into three categories: assessment scores (e.g., SAT® exam scores), transcript attributes (e.g., course rigor), and additional indicators (e.g., attendance) that impact achievement.

Cromwell, Ashley M. , Larsen McClarty, Katie , Larson, Sarah J. 05-25-2013
Bulletin #24: Learning Progressions: An Overview of Current Validation Methods

Learning progressions represent a set of skills or pieces of knowledge ordered sequentially from least to most complex. This sequence can guide instruction as well as assessment content. This paper describes several useful methods for validating learning progressions including validating the relationship between the progression and student knowledge as well as between the progression and associated assessments.

Soto, Amanda C.
Taylor, Melinda A.
05-24-2013
Bulletin #23: What is College and Career Readiness? State Requirements for High School Graduation and State Public University Admissions

This paper compares the minimum requirements for high school graduation in each state with admission requirements for the state’s main (or “flagship”) university campus. In 80% of the states, the high school graduation requirements do not meet the minimum standards necessary for admission to their own state universities.

Conforti, Peter A. 05-23-2013
Bulletin #22: What is College and Career Readiness? A Summary of State Definitions

This paper outlines each state’s definition of college and career readiness and shows whether they associate with the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI), ACT College and Career Readiness System (ACCRS), or both. The general definition that emerges can not only facilitate interstate discussions on multiple levels, but also provide schools, districts, educators, students, and other stakeholders with clear objectives to effectively prepare students for postsecondary endeavors.

Conforti, Peter A. 05-22-2013
Bulletin #21: Evidence Based Standard Setting: Establishing Cut Scores by Integrating Research Evidence with Expert Content Judgments

In this bulletin, we describe the processes and practices associated with Evidence Based Standard Setting, which draw directly from the concept of evidence-based medicine.

Beimers, Jennifer N., Way, Walter D., McClarty, Katie Larsen, Miles, Julie A. 01-01-2012
Bulletin #20: Performance-based Assessment: Some New Thoughts on an Old Idea

The purpose of this bulletin is to review arguments in favor and arguments against the use of performance-based assessments to assess student achievement in light of proposed test score uses

Lai, Emily R. 05-01-2011
Bulletin #19: Making Sense of the Metrics: Student Growth, Value-added Models and Teacher Effectiveness

The goal of this bulletin is to define student growth, value-added models, and teacher effectiveness, three terms often confused.

O'Malley, Kimberly, McClarty, Katie, Magda, Tracey, Burling, Kelly 04-01-2011
Bulletin #18: An Investigation of an Assessment-Centered Learning Environment with Formative Use

Learning environments centered on assessments provide opportunities for feedback that yield information with potential benefit for improving learning and instruction.

Arce, Alvaro J. 12-01-2010
Bulletin #17: A Comparison of Distributed and Regional Scoring

Distributed scoring provides access to a wider pool of readers than those that could be included through regional scoring alone, thereby allowing for a larger number of readers to be recruited and permitting greater selectivity in reader recruitment. This has the potential for increased efficiency in training time for readers and could facilitate shorter turnaround times in performance scoring, which would, in turn, shorten the time between test administration and the reporting of test scores.

Keng, Leslie, Davis, Laurie L., Ragland, Shelley 09-01-2010
Bulletin #16: Pearson’s Automated Scoring

Pearson’s automated scoring technology, the Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), delivers fast, accurate, and valid assessment scores.

Knowledge Technologies 07-01-2010
Bulletin #15: Capturing Item Writers’ Expertise

The efficient development of quality innovative items may be hindered by inexperienced item writers who are not familiar with the challenges and nuances of innovative item types. The study of expert item writers offers the possibility of capturing and “bottling” the knowledge and skills acquired by these experts over years of hard work.

Fulkerson, Dennis, Nichols, Paul 06-01-2010
Bulletin #14: What Impact Does Calculator Use Have On Test Results?

Calculators are commonly used in mathematics and science instruction. In fact, over 20 years ago, two studies commissioned by the College Board (Kupin & Whittington, 1988; Pfeiffenberger & Zolandz, 1989) indicated that, at that time, nearly all math and science college instructors permitted use of calculators for all types of course work and at least some tests

Wolfe, Edward W. 05-01-2010
Bulletin #13: Comparability of Computerized Adaptive and Paper-Pencil Tests

When a traditional Paper-Pencil Test (PPT) is delivered by computer, two types of computerization can be implemented. One is a linear Computer-Based Test (CBT) in which the paper version of the test is presented and administered via computers. The other type of computerization is the Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) in which not only the medium of administration changes from paper to computer but also the test delivery algorithm turns from linear to adaptive.

Hong Wang, University of Pittsburgh, Chingwei David Shin, Pearson 03-01-2010
Bulletin #12: What is a learning progression?

Learning progressions describe in words and examples what it means to move over time toward more expert understanding. This bulletin discusses research, assessment development, and the Pearson Foundation support for ongoing efforts relating to learning progressions.

Nichols, Paul D. 02-02-2010
Bulletin #11: What is a Balanced Assessment System?

Under President Obama’s education reform agenda, the concept of a balanced assessment system has received increasing attention.

Nichols, Paul D. 01-01-2010
Bulletin #10: Methods of Comparability Studies for Computerized and Paper-Based Tests

In recent years, tests have begun being administered by computer.

Wan, Lei, Keng, Leslie, McClarty, Katie, Davis, Laurie 12-01-2009
Bulletin #9: Computer-Based & Paper-Pencil Test Comparability Studies

In some testing applications, Computer-Based Test (CBT) delivery is gaining popularity over the traditional Paper-  Pencil-Test (PPT) delivery due to the several potential advantages that it offers, such as immediate scoring and reporting of results, more

Wang, Hong, Shin, Chingwei David 11-02-2009
Bulletin #8: The Use of Separate Answer Sheets

As early as 1932, separate answer sheets for standardized tests were hailed as a financial boon for educational testing.

Ragland, Shelley 11-01-2009
Bulletin #7: Online Scorer Training

Online Scorer Training Increasingly, technology is being employed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of delivery, scoring, and reporting of largescale assessments.

Wolfe, Edward W., PhD 08-01-2009
Bulletin #6: What Role Does the Consequences of Testing Play in Validity?

Currently, the field of educational measurement appears to have reached broad consensus that validity is a judgment of the degree to which arguments support the interpretations and uses of test scores (Kane, 2006).

Nichols, Paul D., Williams, Natasha 04-01-2008
Bulletin #5: What is Formative Assessment?

What is formative assessment? Looking across the evolution of the term "formative assessment," the common thread is that a formative assessment is defined by more than the assessment itself.

Burling, Kelly, Meyers, Jason, Nichols, Paul D. 01-01-2008
Bulletin #4: Alternate Assessment - the 1% Rule; Modified Assessment - the 2% Rule

Since the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, commonly known as No Child Left Behind (NCLB), states must include all students in public school in the statewide accountability system, and are accountable for the achievement of all students.

Burling, Kelly 06-01-2007
Bulletin #3: Griddable Items: Beyond Multiple Choice

Multiple-choice test items along with "fill-in-the-bubble" answer sheets are mainstay formats in testing formats that are prevalent for practical reasons.

Nichols, Paul; PhD 03-01-2007
Bulletin #2: Quality Assurance in Essay Scoring

Applying a score to a student essay is much different than scoring a math test or multiple choice vocabulary quiz.

Twing, Jon S., PhD, Vickers, Daisy 10-01-2006
Bulletin #1: Universal Design

Developers of large-scale assessments have, for quite some time, stressed the need for participation of populations with unique educational needs, varying cultural experiences, diverse linguistic backgrounds, and numerous special needs.

Harms, Michael, PhD, Nichols, Paul, PhD, Walsh, Chris 06-01-2006