Always Learning

Research Archive

Find Research:
TITLE
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR
DATE
Bulletin #7: Online Scorer Training

Online Scorer Training Increasingly, technology is being employed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of delivery, scoring, and reporting of largescale assessments.

Wolfe, Edward W., PhD 08-01-2009
Practical Questions in Introducing Computerized Adaptive Testing for K-12 Assessments

In this paper, a number of practical questions related to introducing CAT for K-12 assessments are discussed.

Way, Walter D. 04-01-2006
Administering Alternate Assessments

In the United States, a series of federal laws have been enacted that require all students with disabilities to be included in state accountability assessments.

Kreusel, Sheree 12-01-2005
A Primer on Assessing the Visually Impaired

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)—which is the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA)—requires that in order to get federal funds, states must hold schools and districts accountable for the achievement of their students as measured by standardized achievement tests.

Case, Betsy J., PhD, Jeffries, Janis L., Zucker, Sasha 12-01-2005
Accommodations for the Deaf

Raising academic standards for all students and measuring student achievement to hold schools accountable for educational progress are central strategies for promoting educational excellence and equity in our schools.

Case, Betsy J., PhD 11-01-2005
Transadaptation

In recent decades, the nation's classrooms have seen an increase in the number of students who are not native speakers of English, a group referred to by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) as students with limited English proficiency (LEP).

Alaniz, Linda G., Guzman, Luis, Miska, Margarita, Zucker, Sasha 09-01-2005
The Age of Accountability

With the goal of supporting global education, Pearson Inc. (Pearson) was a sponsoring agency of the 2005 China-U.S. Conference on Educational Assessment held in Beijing.

Case, Betsy J., PhD 09-01-2005
Accountability and Educational Progress for Students with Disabilities

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), has significantly impacted state educational systems and local school districts.

Case, Betsy J., PhD 09-01-2005
Inclusive Design for Maximum Accessibility: A Practical Approach to Universal Design

The purpose of this article is to briefly review the literature related to Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Universal Design for Assessment (UDA), and outline an approach for combining these two philosophies in evaluating large-scale assessment programs.

Hanna, Elizabeth I. 08-01-2005
Recent Trends in Comparability Studies

The purpose of this paper is to review the research addressing the comparability of computer-delivered tests and pencil-and-paper tests, and particularly the research since 1993.

Paek, Pamela 08-01-2005
Comparing Standards-based Item Banks and Pre-built Tests for Classroom Assessment

The current era of accountability and standards-based reform in education has had many effects on teachers’ approaches to instruction in the classroom. Recently, the importance of assessment has been bolstered by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).

Pearson, Inc. 08-01-2005
Curriculum Narrowing

The current era of education reform in the United States can be traced to the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), which, among its provisions, required states to monitor and assess the educational progress of students.

King, Kelly V., Zucker, Sasha 08-01-2005
Systematic Feedback for More Effective Teaching and Learning

The value of taking a test is in getting the results back quickly and in a manner that communicates them clearly.

Jorgensen, Margaret A; Ph.D. 08-01-2005
Aligning ELP Assessments to ELP Standards

Intensified attention to alignment between state English language proficiency (ELP) assessments and state ELP standards has primarily been driven by the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).

Johnson, Diane F. 07-01-2005
Methodologies for Alignment

Alignment can be broadly defined as the degree to which the components of an education system work together to achieve the desired goals of stakeholders.

Case, Betsy; PhD, Zucker, Sasha 07-01-2005
Horizontal and Vertical Alignment

Alignment is typically understood as the agreement between a set of content standards and an assessment used to measure those standards.

Case, Betsy, PhD, Zucker, Sasha 07-01-2005
Early Mathematics and EMDA™

With the advent of standards-based reform and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), educational systems are being held accountable to high levels of student achievement as never before.

Pearson, Inc. 07-01-2005
Sensory Profile

The Sensory Profile™ provides a standard method for professionals to measure the sensory processing abilities of children 5 to 10 years old (separate cut scores for 3 and 4 year olds are provided in the manual) and to profile the effects of sensory processing on functional performance in the children’s daily lives.

Dunn, Winnie 06-01-2005
ABAS Technical Supplement

The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS; Harrison&Oakland, 2000) uses a behavior-rating format to assess adaptive behavior and related skills for individuals 5 through 89 years of age.

06-01-2005
Infant Toddler Sensory Profile

The Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile provides a standard method for professionals to measure a child’s sensory processing abilities and to profile the effect of sensory processing on functional performance in the child’s daily life.

06-01-2005
DELV Technical Report

The Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation (DELV) family of assessments is unique because it is the only language assessment series that accounts for the diversity in American English and identifies children who are at risk for or show signs of a speech or language disorder.

06-01-2005
CELF-4 Technical Report

The Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals®–Fourth Edition (CELF®–4) is an individually administered test for determining if a student (ages 5 through 21 years) has a language disorder or delay.

06-01-2005
Bayley-III Technical Report 2

The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development–Third Edition (Bayley–III; Bayley, 2006) measures cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive development and is a revision of its predecessor, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development—Second Edition (BSID–II; Bayley, 1993).

06-01-2005
Bayley-III Technical Report 1

The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III; Bayley, 2006) is designed to measure the developmental status of young children, ages 1 to 42 months.

06-01-2005
WIAT-II Technical Report: Interpreting Performance on the Reading Comprehension Subtest

Interpreting performance on the Reading Comprehension subtest of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test®–Second Edition (WIAT®–II, Update 2005) is challenging for some examiners, particularly when a student must reverse to a preceding item set.

Breaux, Kristina C., Ph.D. 06-01-2005
WAIS-III Technical Report: Response to Flynn

In Tethering the Elephant: Capital Cases, IQ, and the Flynn Effect (Flynn, 2006), Dr. Flynn states that the WAIS-III© standardization sample is substandard and a 2.34 point adjustment to the FSIQ score is required in post conviction capital murder cases

Weiss, Lawrence G., Ph.D. 06-01-2005
Bracken

The Bracken Basic Concept Scale—Revised (BBCS–R) is used to assess the basic concept development of children ages 2 years, 6 months through 7 years, 11 months.

Bracken, Bruce A. 06-01-2005
PLS-4 Technical Report

The Preschool Language Scale , Fourth Edition (PLS-4) is an individually administered test for identifying children from birth through 6 years, 11 months who have a language disorder or delay.

Pond, Roberta Evatt, M.A., Steiner, Violette G., B.S., Zimmerman, Irla Lee, Ph.D. 06-01-2005
CELF-4/WISC-IV Technical Report

Children who participated in research studies with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition Integrated (Wechsler, Kaplan, Fein, Kramer, Morris, Delis, & Maerlender; 2004) were administered the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition (Semel, Wiig, & Secord; 2003).

06-01-2005
Boehm-3 Preschool

The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Third Edition (Boehm-3) is a group administered assessment for students in kindergarten through second grade.

Boehm, Ann E., Ph.D. 06-01-2005
SCAN-C

The SCAN-C Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Children-Revised is an individually administered test used to identify children between ages 5 years, 0 months and 11 years, 11 months who have auditory processing disorders.

Keith, Robert W. 06-01-2005
School Function Assessment

School professionals recognize that effective school performance depends on a student’s ability to perform a variety of functional tasks that enable him or her to participate in various learning activities.

Coster, Wendy, Deeney, Theresa, Haley, Stephan, Haltiwanger, Jane 06-01-2005
Boehm-3

The Boehm Test of Basic Concepts, Third Edition (Boehm-3) is a group administered assessment for students in kindergarten through second grade.

Boehm, Ann E., Ph.D. 06-01-2005
SCAN-A

SCAN-A: A Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Adolescents and Adults enables professionals to obtain central auditory test results in approximately 20 minutes for adolescents and adults.

Keith, Robert W. 06-01-2005
Early Reading and the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, Second Edition (ERDA Second Edition)

For virtually all students, learning to read and write begins long before kindergarten. It is a complex and dynamic process.

Jordan, Dr. R. Rosalie, King, Kelly, Kirk, David J. 04-01-2005
Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Scores from an Automated Essay Scorer

This paper examined validity evidence for the scores based on the Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), an automated essay-scoring engine developed by Pearson Knowledge Technologies.

Nichols, Paul 03-01-2005
Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Partial Credit Model

Exposure control research with polytomous item pools has determined that randomization procedures can be very effective for controlling test security in computerized adaptive testing (CAT).

Dodd, Barbara G. (University of Texas at Austin), Laughlin David, Laurie 03-01-2005
WISC-IV Technical Report #4.1: GAI with Canadian Norms

This technical report is the fourth in a series intended to introduce the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV;Wechsler, 2003).

Coalson, Diane, Ph.D., Raiford, Susan E., Ph.D., Rolfhus, Eric, Ph.D., Saklofske, Donald H., Ph.D., Weiss, Lawrence G., Ph.D, Zhu, Jianjun, Ph.D. 01-01-2005
WISC-IV Technical Report #4: GAI

This technical report is the fourth in a series intended to introduce the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV;Wechsler, 2003).

Coalson, Diane, Ph.D. , Raiford, Susan E., Ph.D., Rolfhus, Eric, Ph.D., Weiss, Lawrence G., Ph.D 01-01-2005
MicroCog Assessment of Cognitive Functioning

MicroCog™: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning (MicroCog) is a computer-administered cognitive screening instrument that was originally developed for a disk operating system (DOS).

Drozdick, Lisa, Holdnack, James, Lane, Andre 12-01-2004
Alignment in Educational Assessment

In the context of education, alignment can be broadly defined as the degree to which the components of an education system--such as standards, curricula, assessments, and instruction--work together to achieve desired goals (Ananda, 2003; Resnick, Rothman, Slattery, and Vranek, 2003; Webb, 1997b).

Case, Betsy J., PhD, Jorgensen, Margaret A., PhD, Zucker, Sasha 12-01-2004
Value Added

“Value-added,” a term originally used in business and economics, has become widely used to describe certain educational assessment and accountability systems.

11-01-2004
Toward Complete Assessment

In the United States, there is a wide range of educational assessment systems used for many different purposes.

Jorgensen, Margaret A, Ph.D., Zucker, Sasha 11-01-2004
A Performance Comparison of Native and Non-native Speakers of English on an English Language Proficiency Test

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the population of the United States grew by approximately 12.5 percent from 1995 to 2000. Crawford (1997) reports that language diversity has increased dramatically throughout the nation.

Jiao, Hong, Stephenson, Agnes, Ph.D., Wall, Nathan 08-01-2004
Augmentation

Since the introduction of the Stanford Achievement Test in 1923—the first of its kind—large-scale standardized norm-referenced assessments have served a variety of important purposes in education.

Zucker, Sasha, Christensen, Ray, Ellis, Roy T., Harris, Herb, Manning, Duane 08-01-2004
The Distractor Rationale Taxonomy: Enhancing Multiple-Choice Items in Reading and Mathematics

Recent education reform legislation, especially the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), has highlighted discussion concerning the relationship between assessment and classroom instruction.

Gardner, Doug A., Jorgensen, Margaret A., PhD, King, Kelly V., Zucker, Sasha 07-01-2004
Effective Schools

Why do some public schools that educate students from disadvantaged backgrounds make a difference while others fail?

Jones, Terry L., Kirk, David J. 07-01-2004
Alternate Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

Accountability systems are based on measuring the progress of all students. The reform movements and current laws are designed to ensure that all students have opportunities to learn to high standards.

Almond, Patricia J., PhD, Case, Betsy J., PhD 06-01-2004
Accountability and Educational Progress: Including Students with Disabilities and/or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

Just as the People’s Republic of China has its nine-year Compulsory Education Law of 1985, the United States has a pre-eminent law as well. The U.S. law is known as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).

Case, Betsy J., PhD 06-01-2004
New Visions New Futures

Self-determination for students with disabilities began to get federal attention in the mid-1980s.

Case, Betsy J., Ph.D. 06-01-2004
Online or Paper: Does Delivery Affect Results?

The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, Fourth Edition (SDRT 4) and Stanford Diagnostic Mathematics Test, Fourth Edition (SDMT 4) were adapted to a computer-based, online format in 2003.

Wang, Shudong, PhD 06-01-2004
Administration Practices for Standardized Assessments

Pearson Inc. (Pearson) develops and distributes a variety of assessments for educational and clinical purposes. To meet the goal of producing highly valid, reliable results for test users, each of these products is developed according to strict guidelines.

Zucker, Sasha, Galindo, Margarita, Grainger, Elaine, Severance, Nancy 04-01-2004
Scientifically Based Research

A significant aspect of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is the use of the phrase "scientifically based research" well over 100 times throughout the text of the law.

Zucker, Sasha 03-01-2004
The Standards-Referenced Interpretive Framework: Using Assessments for Multiple Purposes

From the outset of the development of a large scale assessment system, a central activity in the design process concerns determining the assessment’s interpretive framework—the way that its results are understood to convey meaningful information.

Young, Michael J., PhD, Zucker, Sasha 03-01-2004
The Value of the Stanford Scale as a Common Metric

As states and school districts report on the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of student performance as required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), there will be increasing emphasis on documenting student progress along a developmental continuum within selected subject areas.

Jorgensen, Margaret A., PhD 03-01-2004
Cognitive Labs

A cognitive lab is a method of studying the mental processes one uses when completing a task such as solving a mathematics problem or interpreting a passage of text.

Case, Betsy J., Ph.D., Sassman, Christy, Zucker, Sasha 02-01-2004
Assessing Young Children

Today’s educational climate of standards and accountability extends even to preschool programs (Bowman, Donovan, and Burns, 2001).

Case, Betsy J., PhD, Guddemi, Marcy; PhD 02-01-2004
Assessing English Language Proficiency: Using Valid Results to Optimize Instruction

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has focused increased attention on the appropriate assessment of English language learners (ELL students) in U.S. public schools.

Johnson, Diane F., Jorgensen, Margaret A., Ph.D., Stephenson, Agnes, Ph.D., Young, Michael J., Ph.D. 11-01-2003
Establishing Performance Levels for the Stanford English Language Proficiency Test (Stanford ELP)

The Stanford English Language Proficiency Test (Stanford ELP) measures the English proficiency of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose first language is not English.

Stephenson, Agnes, Ph.D. 10-01-2003
Academic & Social English for ELL Students

To better identify the AL that should be assessed with an ELP test, we need to refocus on the main purpose of an ELP test: to assess students' general English language ability.

Johnson, Diane F. 09-01-2003
History of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)

In August of 1981, the National Commission on Excellence in Education was chartered under the authority of 20 U.S.C. 1233a to, among other purposes and functions, "review and synthesize the data and scholarly literature on the quality of learning and teaching in the nation's schools, colleges, and universities, both public and private, with special concern for the educational experience of teen-age youth" (U.S. Department of Education, 1983a).

Hoffmann, Jenny, Jorgensen, Margaret A., PhD 08-01-2003
Maximizing Equity and Access in Test Construction

President Bush’s education agenda (The White House, 2001) reinforced what some states were already addressing in their policies aimed at improving education.

Emrick Massad, Carolyn, Ph.D. 07-01-2003
DAS Technical Report: Ability-Achievement Discrepancy Table for use with the WIAT-II

The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test®—Second Edition (WIAT–II; Psychological Corporation, 2002) and the Differential Ability Scales® (DAS; Elliott, 1990) were administered to 100 children, 6 to 16 years old.

Diehl, Kim, Elliott, Colin, O'Donnell, Louise, Rolfhus, Eric, Weiss, Larry 06-01-2003
Universal Design

The concept of universal design has its roots in the field of architecture.

Case, Betsy, PhD 06-01-2003
WISC-IV Technical Report #3: Clinical Validity

This is the third in a series of technical reports on WISC-IV.

Rolfhus, Eric, Ph.D, Weiss, Lawrence G., Ph.D, Williams, Paul E., Psy.D. 06-01-2003
WISC-IV Technical Report #2: Psychometric Properties

This technical report is the second in a series intended to introduce the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV).

Rolfhus, Eric, Ph.D, Weiss, Lawrence G., Ph.D, Williams, Paul E., Psy.D. 06-01-2003
WISC-IV Technical Report #1: Theoretical Model and Test Blueprint

This technical report is the first in a series intended to introduce the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV).

Rolfhus, Eric, Ph.D, Weiss, Lawrence G., Ph.D, Williams, Paul E., Psy.D. 06-01-2003
Timed Versus Untimed Testing Conditions and Student Performance

The adherence to fixed time limits during group administrations of norm-referenced standardized tests has been an accepted practice from the early part of the 20th century (Anastasi, 1976; pp. 32-34).

Brooks, Thomas E., PhD, Case, Betsy J., PhD, Young, Michael J., PhD 06-01-2003
Augmentation: An Implementation Strategy for the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), states have the opportunity to redefine and enhance their assessment programs to support the diagnostic needs of students, educators, and parents. Pearson Education, Inc. (Pearson) has developed a strategy that combines the best features of norm-referenced and standards-based test designed to ensure that states comply with the annual reporting requirements of NCLB.

Hicks-Herr, Stacy, Hoffmann, Jenny, Jorgensen, Margaret A, PhD 06-01-2003
Calculator Use on Stanford Series Mathematics Tests

Calculator use has, over the years, become increasingly integrated into mathematics instruction and testing.

Brooks, Thomas E., Ph.D., Case, Betsy J., Ph.D., Cerrillo, Tracy, Ph.D., Severance, Nancy, Wall, Nathan, Young, Michael J., Ph.D. 05-01-2003
It's About Time: Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (Stanford 10)

Pearson decided to make the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition (Stanford 10) an untimed test for several compelling reasons.

Case, Betsy J., PhD 04-01-2003
Accommodations for Stanford 9

For more than 25 years, federal law has guaranteed a free and appropriate public education to children with disabilities.

Case, Betsy J., PhD , Slawski, Edward J. 03-01-2003
Accommodations for METROPOLITAN8

The trend toward the inclusion of students with disabilities and limited English proficient (LEP) students in state and district-wide assessment programs became a requirement in 1997 with the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA).

Case, Betsy J., PhD 03-01-2003
The New Norm-Referenced Test Model

Traditionally, there have been distinct differences in the purpose, use and development guidelines for a norm-referenced test (NRT) and for a criterionreferenced test (CRT).

Jorgensen, Margaret A., PhD, McBee, Maridyth, PhD 03-01-2003
Color Blindness

Color vision is determined by the discrimination of three qualities of color: hue (such as red vs. green), saturation (that is, pure vs. blended colors), and brightness (that is, vibrant vs. dull reflection of light) (Arditi, 1999a).

Case, Betsy J., PhD 02-01-2003
Accommodations on Stanford 10 for Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students

Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was amended by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in January 2002. Under NCLB, all students are to be included in the measurement of progress toward state achievement standards.

Case, Betsy J., PhD 02-01-2003
Test and Answer Document Design and Layout The New Norm-Referenced Test Model

Pearson Inc. (Pearson) drew from a variety of sources to create and validate its innovative test and answer document design for the Stanford 10 Assessment Series (Stanford 10).

Case, Betsy J., PhD 02-01-2003
Accommodations on Stanford 10 for Students with Disabilities

Requirements for including all students with disabilities (SWD) in assessments stem from a number of federal laws, including Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA).

Case, Betsy J., PhD 02-01-2003